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吸附分离

2021-07-22 17:09:41
吸附分离
详细介绍:

吸附是利用某种特定固体物质对液体或气体中不同成分的吸引力(范德华引力)的 差而 进行选择性吸附分离的一种界面现象。气相吸附时被吸附物质在吸附剂表面被凝缩成 液体,而液性吸附时被吸附物质从溶解状态被转换成不溶解或难溶解状态从 而被分离出来。此外,微孔结构的吸附剂还可通过毛细管现象使气体凝缩变成液体,进一步增加了吸附剂的吸附能力。以上现象称为物理吸附, 其过程是可逆的,通过改变条件可使 被吸附物质从吸附剂上解吸出来。与物理吸附相对应的还有化学吸附。化学吸附是通过吸附质与吸附剂发生化学反应从而使被吸附物质从混合物中分离出来,化学吸附一般是不可逆的。



工业使用的吸附剂包括无机吸附剂、有机吸附剂、沸石分子筛等多种, 根据被分离物质的物化特性选择合适吸附剂是吸附分离装置设计的关键。




Detailed introduction:

Adsorption is an interface phenomenon that uses the difference in attraction (van der Waals gravitation) of a certain solid substance to different components in a liquid or gas for selective adsorption and separation. During gas phase adsorption, the adsorbed substance is condensed into a liquid on the surface of the adsorbent, while during liquid adsorption, the adsorbed substance is converted from a dissolved state to an insoluble or insoluble state and is separated. In addition, the microporous adsorbent can also condense gas into liquid through capillary phenomenon, which further increases the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The above phenomenon is called physical adsorption, and the process is reversible. The adsorbed substance can be desorbed from the adsorbent by changing the conditions. Corresponding to physical adsorption is chemical adsorption. Chemical adsorption is a chemical reaction between adsorbate and adsorbent to separate the adsorbed substance from the mixture. Chemical adsorption is generally irreversible.

Industrial adsorbents include inorganic adsorbents, organic adsorbents, and zeolite molecular sieves. Choosing a suitable adsorbent according to the physical and chemical properties of the separated substance is the key to the design of the adsorption separation device.

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