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精馏塔设计

2021-07-20 17:45:45
精馏塔设计
详细介绍:


精馏塔是进行精馏的一种塔式气液接触装置。利用混合物中各组分具有不同的挥发度,即在同一温度下各组分的蒸气压不同这一性质,使液相中的轻组分(低沸物)转移到气相中,而气相中的重组分(高沸物)转移到液相中,从而实现分离的目的。精馏塔也是石油化工生产中应用极为广泛的一种传质传热装置。下面随精馏塔设计小编来简单了解一下吧。


无论是平衡蒸馏还是简单蒸馏,虽然可以起到一定的分离作用,但是并不能将一混合物分离为具有一定量的高纯度产品。在石油化工生产中常常要求获得纯度很高的产品,通过精馏过程可以获得这种高纯度的产品。


精馏过程所用的设备称为精馏塔,精馏塔设计大体上可以分为两大类:①板式塔,气液两相总体上作多次逆流接触,每层板上气液两相一般作交叉流。②填料塔,气液两相作连续逆流接触。一般的精馏装置由精馏塔塔身、冷凝器、回流罐,以及再沸器等设备组成。进料从精馏塔中某段塔板上进人塔内,这块塔板称为进料板。进料板将精馏塔分为上下两段,进料板以上部分称为精馏段,进料板以下部分称为提馏段。


The rectification tower is a tower type gas-liquid contact device for rectification. Using the different volatility of each component in the mixture, that is, at the same temperature, the vapor pressure of each component is different, so that the light components (low boilers) in the liquid phase are transferred to the gas phase, while the Heavy components (high boilers) are transferred to the liquid phase to achieve the purpose of separation. Distillation tower is also a kind of mass and heat transfer device that is extremely widely used in petrochemical production. Let's take a brief look at it with the small editor of distillation tower design.


Whether it is balanced distillation or simple distillation, although it can have a certain separation effect, it cannot separate a mixture into a certain amount of high-purity products. In petrochemical production, it is often required to obtain high-purity products, and this high-purity product can be obtained through the rectification process.


The equipment used in the rectification process is called a rectification tower. The design of the rectification tower can be roughly divided into two categories: ①The plate tower, the gas-liquid two phases are in general countercurrent contact for many times, and the gas-liquid two-phase on each layer is generally Make cross flow. ② In the packed tower, the two phases of gas and liquid are in continuous countercurrent contact. The general rectification device is composed of rectification tower body, condenser, reflux tank, and reboiler. The feed material enters the tower from a certain section of the rectification tower, and this tray is called the feed plate. The feed plate divides the rectifying tower into two upper and lower sections. The part above the feed plate is called the rectification section, and the part below the feed plate is called the stripping section.

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